A Brief History of the Leeds Crane Makers
The story of Leeds crane making goes back to a firm established in Calverley in 1820 by Jeremiah Balmforth and David Smith. Just as the locomotive industry in Leeds had begun with firms established to make mill machinery, so did its crane making industry. They were primarily millwrights producing machinery for the woollen industry. In 1833 the firm were joined by Jeremiah Booth. They looked for further markets for their work and this included hand operated cranes from 1840. In 1847 Booth left and established his own crane making company at the new Union Foundry. In 1855 Booth’s firm passed on to his son Joseph Booth and the name Joseph Booth & Bros was adopted.
In 1858 Jeremiah Balmforth died and his son William inherited the position, to be followed the following year David Smith’s son Thomas. The production of steam powered cranes is thought to have begun around 1860, however the two partners in the company fell out in 1861. Thomas Smith bought out the company and took control. Thomas Smith later brought his sons in to the business and they eventually took it over on his death in 1902. In 1918 the company was incorporated as Thomas Smith & Sons.
William Balmforth established a new firm to manufacture quarry cranes, the Peel Ings Foundry, though this works did not enjoy the same success of those of Thomas Smith and Joseph Booth.
Smith’s Old Foundry and Booth’s Union Foundry were both situated on a narrow strip of land between Town Street, Rodley and the Leeds & Liverpool Canal. Large demand for their cranes in docks, quarries and construction sites saw both businesses thrive. Particularly popular were the very similar 4 wheel steam cranes that both firms produced. The basic design is often referred to as the 'Leeds type' or 'Rodley type' and has the steam boiler counterbalancing the jib with a tall column pivot, making them very stable machines. These cranes proved so popular that the works both struggled to meet demand and very similar cranes were produced by a number of other firms around Leeds at the time.
William Balmforth / Balmforth Brothers
Above - Surviving William Balmforth steam crane on Gloucester Docks (photo Kris Ward).
As well as steam cranes William Balmforth is also known to have built a small number of outside cylinder vertical boiler locomotives. William Balmforth died around 1880 and his executors ran the firm for a number of years until his sons took over in 1897 and the company was renamed Balmforth Bros Ltd. More about this company’s unusual engines can be found in this article from Narrow Gauge World. The Peel Ings Foundry was a fairly small concern and it only lasted until 1916. It was bought by Samuel Butler & Co who subsequently built some steam cranes in their works in Stanningly and soon closed the Peel Ings Foundry.
Samuel Butler & Co
Samuel Butler was a member of the Butler family that owned Stanningly Ironworks. He founded his own Albion Works around 1904. The core of the business was structural metal work such as bridges but with the acquisition of Balmforth Brothers in 1916 they went in to crane production and recruited a crane design engineer with experience from previous work at Stothart & Pith in Bath. A number of orders were received from India, though serious problems with some 40 ton breakdown cranes ordered in 1925 for Indian Railways saw the firm leave the crane business.
John Butler & Co
The Stanningly Ironworks is also noted more for its structural metal work which included York's station roof. From around 1880 some steam cranes were produced to the familiar Rodley design. Several orders from John Butler are recorded in the surviving records from Joseph Booth so it would be interesting to verify if John Butler was subcontracting the work or if these cranes were in fact for use in the Stanningly Ironworks. The works closed in the depression of the 1930s.
Thomas Smith & Sons Ltd
Left - Picture of a Thomas Smith Steam Crane in the Slate Mining Museum at Llanberis (photo Kris Ward)
Smith's cranes found their way on to many docks and canal sides as well as railway yards and construction sites. Some of the largest construction projects to use Smith cranes were the Manchester Ship Canal, the Mersey tunnels, the Aswan Low Dam, the Lower Zambesi Bridge and the Sudan Barrage. As early as 1894 Thomas Smith were producing electrical powered cranes. The first electric crane was an overhead crane for use in the John Fowler works.
In later years the internal combustion engine would replace the steam engine as the power source in their cranes and Caterpillar tracks fitted versions were offered as an alternative to moving around on railway wheels, these became more popular in later years as the railway industry lost its dominance. The cranes were adapted to become excavators with buckets replacing the usual crane hook, these excavators were useful machines for a number of quarries. The company also provided magnets for use in sites handling metals.
Above - Video clip of a Smith steam crane in action in Western Australia, 1980
Below Left – A diesel powered Smith rail mounted crane at the Middleton Railway, this crane was previously used in Scunthorpe steel works. It is seen here lifting a sectioned boiler for display in the engine house. It also lifts boilers on and off locos for restoration, lifts track components and carries out all sorts of essential duties, so though it is a preserved machine it is still very much a working piece of machinery.
Below Right - One of Smith's C28 crawler cranes at Embsey on the Embsey & Bolton Abbey Steam Railway. (Photos Kris Ward)
|Thomas Smith Crawler Crane and Excavator Models|
|Smith Eurocrane 35C|
The company was taken over by Thomas Ward shortly before World War II, in 1978 they were taken over by Northern Engineering Industries. NEI had taken over many big manufacturing companies which by this time included Cowans Sheldon, Clyde Crane, Wellman Cranes and Smith's next door neighbours Joseph Booth. Both works in Rodley closed following these mergers but Smith's former Old Foundry buildings still survive in industrial use.
Below – The former Old Foundry of Thomas Smith & Son.
Joseph Booth & Bros
Since the original crane making partnership split in 1847 the two key firms in this story, Thomas Smith and Joseph Booth, had been operating successfully side by side. With the large number of construction projects taking place around the world large numbers of cranes were needed, notable examples supplied by Booths being London's Tower Bridge and the financial disaster that was the aborted Wembley Park Tower project, London's answer to the Eifel Tower. In 1902 the Railway Magazine commented "If the Wembley Tower Company could have raised the money as quickly as these cranes raised the girders, the growth of the tower would not have ceased so abruptly."
Joseph Booth advert from 1888 (image Graces Guide)
Like Smiths, Booths began using electric power around the turn of the 20th Century and in 1902 The Railway Magazine recorded "This branch is rapidly extending, electricity being capable, under modern conditions, of applications in many directions cognate to the business of the firm, who, of course, make electric cranes." Producing the electric motors for their electric cranes in house, Booth’s went on to use these motors in other applications. A number of battery locomotives were made under the Union trademark. The range included small battery shunters and mine locomotives.
Above - Standard gauge Booth RAF battery locos 130 and 131 (Image Bob and Nikki McDonald)
From 1875 onwards Booths made large numbers of overhead cranes for use in factories. In 1903, a local newspaper article recorded "The noted Booths Bros. Self-Contained Steam Overhead Cranes and Goliath Cranes are largely used the world over by Railway Companies, Contractors, Government Works, &c., and they build these wonderful lifters to suit various spans, with a capacity of raising from 5 to 100 tons." In later years, as demand for rail mounted cranes dwindled, this company turned more to the production of overhead cranes.One unusual use for a Booths product was the supply of a crane to the Sultan of Morocco to lift stills used in the production of perfumes, much of which was being produced to supply the palace harem.
One of the most impressive of the firm's steam powered products was a 62t steam powered travelling derrick ordered by Weetman Pearson for constructing an extension to Valparaiso harbour in Chile in 1914. With the engine towards the centre of the structure, drive to the rail mounted bogies was supplied by shafts to the three bogies.
Above - Publicity material for the 62t steam travelling derrick (Image Bob and Nikki McDonald)
Remarkably the remains of this machine can still be found at Vina Del Mar in Chile, just along the coast from Valparaiso. At some point it was converted in to a stationary derrick. The boiler was removed around 1986-87 and restauraunts built on the pier, these burnt down in 2007. The crane survives as a local landmark, though in somewhat deteriorated condition. Picture
Joseph Booth & Bros went in to liquidation in the 1920s depression and was bought by John Baker (1920) Ltd. John Baker was part of the Rotherham steel making family behind Baker & Bessemer. The new ownership saw Booths produce a lot of material for the steel industry, particulally for Baker & Bessemer's Kilnhurst works in Rotherham, the company diversified a long way from being a crane maker, fabricating everything down to the structural metal work for the works.
Clyde Crane & Booth Ltd
1864 established Gateshead engineering firm Clarke Chapman bought significant shares in both Joseph Booth & Bros and Mossend based crane maker Clyde Crane. Both companies were merged to form Clyde Crane and Booth Ltd in 1937.
One of the new company's more high profile projects was the 1957 built 'Bradwell Goliath', a massive 200 ton crane used to construct Bradwell nuclear power station. Then the biggest crane of its type in the world it was featured in the British Pathe newsreels.
Below - British Pathe newsreel clip of the Bradwell Goliath (Click to open)
A similar crane was also employed at Dungeness power station. Though the crane was designed so it could be dismantled and re-used it in fact had a spectacular decomissioning when it was finished with at Bradwell, being blown up on the BBC news.
Booths also built some large rail mounted cranes for use as breakdown and civil engineering cranes. In 1958/59 Booths produced a series of ten 8 wheel Civil Engineers’ cranes for BR Western Region. Some might be familiar with the Airfix kit that was produced of these cranes, Booths having assisted the model manufacturers by providing various plans used in the production of the kit.
In the 1960s another series of mergers began to take place. In 1961, Clyde Crane and Booth Ltd also acquired the Carlisle crane maker Cowans Sheldon. Following the aquisition of Cowans Sheldon this was chosen as the brand name for Clarke Chapman's railway crane business. Booths designed railway cranes were advertised in the Cowans Sheldon catalogue and the works in Leeds concentrated on overhead cranes. 1961 saw the opening of a new head office for the Clyde Crane & Booth group 'Woodeson House' adjacent to the Rodley works.
In 1969, three of the giants of the crane industry merged, Clyde Crane and Booth Ltd, Sir William Arrol and Co Ltd and Wellman Cranes becoming the Crane and Bridge division of Clarke Chapman Ltd. In 1977 Clark Chapman became part of Northern Engineering Industries Plc and in 1978 they took over Thomas Smith In effect the group now owned most of the UK's crane making industry. The Clarke Chapman group was taken over by Rolls Royce in 1989 and by Langley Holdings in 2001. The Booths name can still be found on cranes from Clarke Chapman subsidiary Wellman Booth. The company now operates from an industrial unit in Yeadon where the in-house design work takes place, manufacturing being carried out in Gateshead. Booths original Union Foundry has now been demolished and housing has been built on the site. The firm still specialises in overhead cranes and still carries out a lot of work for the nuclear power industry.
Above – A Wellman Booth overhead crane at Scunthorpe steel works, though this is rather small compared to some of the cranes produced for the nuclear industry (but easier to take a photo of).
Right - Isles steam crane at the Middleton Railway (photo Kris Ward)
Job Isles founded the Prospect Foundry in 1854 and by 1869 was making cranes and later steam cranes. The Lancashire & Yorkshire Railway were one of the best customers for Isles' cranes but they also supplied to the Great Central and Great Western. Isles closed in 1932.
Smith, Beacock & Tannett
Smith, Beacock & Tannett were machine makers and operated in the former Round Foundry works. Amongst the machinery they produced was one of the overhead steam cranes used in the Monkbridge Iron Works.
Tannett, Walker & Co
Thomas Arthur Tannett, son of Thomas Tannett, established another company to manufacture plant equipment, Tannett, Walker & Co. The company made boilers, pumping engines, forging presses, rolling and bending machinery, parts for docks and canals and hydraulic machinery. Cranes were also amongst the products advertised by this company. A steam powered hydraulic engine used to power a crane survives at Armley Mills
The Whitaker family had quarrying interests in the Horsforth area. Samuel Whitaker established an engineering firm, Whitaker's Engineers. Naturally the core business of this firm would be supplying machinery for quarry use, this included cranes and excavators.
Whitaker Brothers advert from 1889 (image Graces Guide)
The engineering firm merged with the family quarrying contractors and engineers firm around 1872 to form Whitaker Brothers Contractors & Engineers. Initially the cranes themselves were bought in from other local firms and the necessary attachments for excavating were produced in house but the company soon began producing their own cranes. The company supplied several cranes for export as well as supplying the UK quarrying industry. In 1910 the company was sold to Ruston Proctor of Lincoln, this company were already a successful producer of excavating equipment and they soon closed the Horsforth works .
Above - Whitaker Brothers steam crane No 130 preserved at Prestongrange Industrial Museum (photo Kris Ward)
This company supplied machinery to the quarrying industry around 1904 to 1920 and amongst their products they advertised steam and electric cranes. It is not certain if these were produced in house or bought in from other manufacturers, certainly it is possible to play spot the difference with theirs and other companies catalogue illustrations but this does reveal some small detail differences.
Below - Bramley Engineering catalogue illustration of a typical Leeds steam crane (Michael Woodhouse)
While famous for their steam trams, locomotives and rollers, Thomas Green produced a huge range of items in their Smithfield works. For a time they advertised steam cranes and produced an illustration following the usual 'Leeds Crane' basic design, it is not known at present if any of these cranes were built.
Smith & Parker
Another engineering and boiler making firm operating in Leeds at the Regent Foundry on Skinner Lane, not far from Thomas Green's Smithfield works. Cranes for Railways were advertised amongst the products available from this company.
So far we have about 1100 records relating to Joseph Booth in the database We are currently working through a lot of information from books held at the West Yorkshire Archive Service to expand these records and hopefully include most of the output of Booths Union Ironworks over the steam era in the coming months. We are also keeping an eye out for similar information regarding Thomas Smith's output to expand that in due course, current information on Smiths is largely limited to surviving railway cranes. At present some records are duplicated in the database, we will sort this glitch out when the additional Booths material is added.
Internal Website Links
With some great contributions we are building up a nice collection of archive material of these firms. The Joseph Booth gallery has benifited from a contribution of good quality images dating from around 1914-1924.
In our Additional Material section the Articles/Brocures section also contains copies of old Smith and Booth publicity material.
External Website Links
The Yorkshire Group of 16mm Modellers has a good write up about the Leeds crane makers on its website.
Archive images on Leodis.net
Much of the archive material relating to Thomas Smith and Joseph Booth is held by the West Yorkshire Archive Service
Wellman Booth Company History 
Proud Heritage, A History of Thomas Smith & Sons (Rodley) Ltd, Frederick H Smith 1947.
Narrow Gauge News August 2007 
Old Glory, Yorkshire Steam Crane Manufacturers, November 2011 - January 2012 
Railway Magazine August 1902 
Bramley, Pudsey, Stanningley & District through the Camera 1903 
Various company catalogues and sales brocures 
Monk Bridge Ironworks, Glyn Davies, Mark Stenton, Ron Fitzgerald and Rob Kinchin-Smith, ArcHeritage 2011, ISBN 978-1-874454-56-4 
The History of Thomas Green & Son Ltd, John Pease, ISBN: 9781899889 81 5 
* These buttons are provided to help readers search for often rare books on the subject and to promote any books available, we are under no commercial incentives for this
This article was produced by Kris Ward, any feedback or contributions about the Leeds engine making industry would be greatly appreciated.
With thanks to Michael Woodhouse, formerly of Wellman Booth, for great help in producing this article
Thanks to Chris Capewell for information about surviving cranes here in the UK and all over the world and to Pat Williams for information regarding the 62t derrick in Chile